Vehicle Interaction Control Improvement


This project objective is to improve the effectiveness and reliability of vehicle interaction controls in mining.


Based on the EMESRT Design Philosophy 5 – Machine Operation and Control published in 2007, EMESRT initiated an industry project in 2013 to improve vehicle interaction controls.

The motivation for this project was the continued high number of unwanted vehicle interaction incidents with high potential for fatalities and serious injuries. This combined with the complexity and uncertainty of outcomes from existing technology, rapid development of options and interoperability concerns meant an industry user driven response was needed.

Since 2013, EMESRT has influenced, coordinated, supported, and guided project activities at an industry level. Core to this work has been engaging with ICMM to leverage their peak industry association status and directly contribute to the Innovation for Cleaner Safer Vehicles (ICSV) program.

This industry project

The vehicle interaction control improvement project eliminate or mitigate unwanted vehicle interactions on site. Understanding your current baseline control effectiveness through applying the vehicle interaction control framework, promotes the systematic identification of vehicle interaction opportunities for improvement in the management system elements involved.

During 2022, several EMESRT member companies based in the United States, South Africa and Australia, completed the vehicle interaction control improvement baseline mapping process.

The process provides an opportunity for operational people to understanding their current control effectiveness and to confirm if there are discrepancies between work as documented and work as done in practice.

The process also identifies and documents opportunities for improvement in five key areas.

The five key areas:











A part of the baseline mapping process, EMESRT produced an comprehensive vehicle interaction control improvement facilitator guide that focusses on the preparation and delivery of a baseline validation workshop and subsequent process improvement steps. It lays a logical foundation to assess vehicle interaction technology controls in their operations by selecting and operationally integrating new technology ‘react’ controls.

The Guide focuses on Phase 1 and 2 of the Vehicle Interaction Control Improvement project guide:

Phase 1: Understand vehicle interaction control baseline i.e., know where you are starting from

Phase 2: Identify and correct any gaps between the baseline design and current operations

The objective of the Guide is to provide consistent structured guidance for resource industry operating sites, so that they can deliver projects that improve vehicle interaction controls.

Both the hard copy and web versions will be launched during the EMESRT / ICMM ICSV planned workshop in Q3 2023.

The surface functional performance scenario storyboards, developed two and a half years ago, helped with the implementation of some baseline work being done in both surface and underground environments. Numerous discussions with designers were held on content, format and usability during the year. More discussions will be scheduled in early 2023 to crystalise the storyboards into a final surface version.

During 2022, there was parallel development of a draft set of underground functional performance storyboards by two groups of users involved in technology applications at sites.

Significant focus in early 2023 is planned to bring the work together into a single underground storyboard set similar to the level of the surface scenarios.

EMESRT has developed a wide range of support material, available on the EMESRT Vehicle Interaction Control Improvement Knowledge Hub. The Hub is accessible through the EMESRT website top navigation tab.

In early 2022, Mining3 granted EMESRT permission to use some or all of the content from the ACARP Project C26028 – PDS Validation Framework: Phase 3 final report in developing an appropriate industry technical document. A sub-group was formed to continue discussions on the taking the research content and converting it into a usable guideline without compromising the intent. More discussions are planned in Q3 2023 to progress the guideline.

In January 2022, EMESRT gained Category C liaison status with ISO/TC 127/SC 2/JWG 28 committees and has been active in the ISO21815 Collision Warning and Avoidance standard review process. Although EMESRT is not eligible to vote, it does provide a path for the broader industry stakeholders to contribute collectively and provide relevant industry developed information to the ISO Committee.

Required Operating States (ROS)

ROS-01: Operator maintains adequate clearances/ distances.


Minimise potentially hazardous interactions between vehicles, co-workers or other items/equipment/structure/environmental aspects when operating and traveling along roadways. Nil approach contact; vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to person(s), vehicle to equipment or environment.

ROS-02: Vehicle operators give way appropriately to mobile plant and pedestrians.


Minimise potentially hazardous interactions between mobile plant and mobile plant and pedestrians in work areas – particularly at constructed intersections and where traffic flows come together. Nil contact; vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to people.

ROS-03: Operators drive vehicles at speeds which meet site rules and local conditions.


Reduce the potential for loss of control of equipment due to incorrect speed for the conditions. Nil loss of control of equipment caused by incorrect speed for the conditions.

ROS-04: Operators do not drive vehicles when impaired.


Nil loss of control of equipment due to operator impairment through fatigue, stress, alcohol and other drugs, or work environment stressors.

ROS-05: Operators park vehicles in positions that avoid unwanted interactions.


Minimise potentially hazardous interactions between vehicles, co-workers or other items/equipment. No unintended movement of parked vehicles.

ROS-06: Physical barriers provide separation.


Physical barriers minimise interactions between vehicles, co-workers, other items, or equipment. Nil normal operations contact; vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to person(s), vehicle to equipment or environment.

ROS-07: Alarms alert operators to nearby hazards and operator takes appropriate action.


Minimise potentially hazardous interactions between vehicles, co-workers or other items/equipment. Alerting alarms or laser barrier/fencing provides timely information on nearby hazards and the vehicle trips and/or vehicle operator responds appropriately. The goal is to achieve Nil approach contact; vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to person(s), vehicle to equipment.

ROS-08: When a vehicle component alarms the operator responds appropriately.


Critical vehicle component e.g., brake or steering system warning alarms. Reduce the potential for loss of control of equipment due to loss or failure of brake or steering system. The vehicle operator responds appropriately to brake or steering system alarms. Nil loss of control of equipment caused by loss or failure of brake or steering system.

ROS-09: Loads are appropriate for vehicle type and site conditions; items are secured during travel.


Vehicle operator or worker loads the vehicle appropriately for site conditions, including securing items. Low levels of harm caused loose objects or loading issues during any vehicle interactions.

ROS-010: Access control - vehicle operators limit movements/activities to designated areas.


Access controls minimise potentially hazardous interactions (vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to pedestrian) in operational areas.

ROS-011: Seat belts are used by vehicle operators and occupants.


To minimise level of harm which results during a hazardous vehicle interaction – Workers traveling in vehicles fitted with restraints wear them when the vehicle is in motion. Vehicle operator and passengers use seat belts / restraints. Maximum designed operator protection during any hazardous vehicle interaction.

ROS-012: Cabin protection is to site standards.


Maximum designed operator protection during unwanted vehicle interactions. For surface operations consider the use of airbags.

ROS-013: Emergency responders manage injuries at the scene.


Adequately resourced site emergency services respond in a timely manner to minimise the injuries or losses sustained at the accident scene. For major, ongoing situations external emergency services – who are familiar with site conditions – provide back up support to limit the extent of loss.

Timely response that removes people from danger, stabilises injuries and provides transport for further treatment.