Tyre and Rim Management


To provide tyre and rim designers and users with structured information that enables the prevention and the mitigation of the consequences of tyre and rim events.


Tyre handling and maintenance of large earthmoving tyre assemblies is the second most significant source of fatal events in surface mining operations after unwanted vehicle interactions.

Most incidents involve stored energy release or crush scenarios and include the catastrophic disassembly of wheel assemblies, tyre explosions from pyrolysis when moving tyres and wheels mobile earthmoving equipment.

This industry project

The EMESRT Design Philosophy 2 – Tyres and Rims was published in 2007 and provides visual operational scenario information for the designers of wheel assembly components and mining operators. It has this objective: to prevent harm related to tyre and rim events to as low as reasonably practical, including consideration in design for foreseeable human error.

Following a series of significant incidents in member companies during 2018, the EMESRT Advisory Group (EAG) members committed to facilitating an industry project to improve tyre and rim management.

In 2018, EMESRT established a Technical Working Group consisting of a broad range of industry stakeholders and includes 41 individuals representing 21 organisations. The Group meets on a regular basis to further progress this industry project.

EMESRT recognised that further problem definition work on this complex problem was required. EMESRT engaged with industry researchers to better understand the human factors aspects of the tasks and environment. This was the user motivation behind approving several rounds of research funding for two ACARP projects.

ACARP (Australian Coal Industry’s Research Program) is a unique and highly successful mining research program that has been running in Australia since 1992.

The two ACARP funded projects are:

  1. C33005 – Human Factors Aspects of Tyre Handling Equipment Design and Operation Examined within an EMESRT Control Framework Approach
  2. C33007 – Real-time Safety Monitor and Alert System for Tyre Handling

In late 2022, a further ACARP Project C35020 – Human-Centred Interactive Hazard Experiences in OTR Tyre Handling was approved by the ACARP board.

In 2021, EMESRT formed a tyre handler sub-group comprising 9 subject matter experts representing 7 entities. This sub-group was instrumental in providing information and categorisation of tyre handling operational activities that populated the tyre handler workflow analysis online tool developed that same year.

The output from the online tool was used to further develop workflows and during a face-to-face workshop held in March 2022, 18 high consequence workflows and associated tasks mapped against the EMESRT Control Framework process were developed.

The initial workshop was followed by several online workshops where the opportunity to animate the workflows was discussed. This discussion resulting in the development of 17 scenario-based storyboard animations.

Scenario storyboard animation number 18 provides a summary of what tyre handling equipment is used for, type of equipment and credible failure modes that need to be managed, e.g. unplanned releases of loads, rapid deflation and sudden wheel rim disassembly, etc.

Storyboard animation titles are listed below:

  1. Aligning the wheel, rim or tyre assembly with the hub
  2.  Lifting wheel or rim components
  3. Placing a tyre in a storage location
  4. Removing the tyre assembly from an earth moving vehicle
  5. Removing the wheel-rim retaining hardware
  6. Standing a tyre assembly vertically on the ground while held in the grabs
  7. Fitting the tyre assembly to the hub
  8. Fitting a tyre to a wheel rim horizontally
  9. Installing retaining hardware
  10. Lifting wheel, rim, or tyre assembly components
  11. Lifting a tyre
  12. Placing components on a rim
  13. Placing a tyre assembly on the stand
  14. Placing a tyre on a transport vehicle
  15. Placing a tyre on wheel or rim vertically
  16. Raising and flipping a tyre
  17. Releasing tyre restraints
  18. Tyre handling equipment summary

In September 2022, a face-to-face workshop was held in Brisbane with 19 technical working group members representing 11 entities participating. One member participating online. The workshop provided the working group with the opportunity to review and comment on each of the 18 scenario storyboard animations developed.

Several improvement opportunities/ amendments were identified and documented during the workshop for all animations.

Once finalised, the scenario storyboard animations will flow into the newly funded ACARP Project 35020 Human-centred Interactive hazard experiences in off the road tyre handling. This project will commence in January 2023 with a series of face-to-face workshops with tyre fitting personnel and subject matter experts to further review the scenario storyboard animations to further understand from the user’s perspective what actual on the job decisions are made and what needs to be translated to operations and design teams. Participants will review the animations in a guided, facilitated way to pause and reflect on the contributing failure modes that lead to unwanted events.

EMESRT is committed to sharing information with industry in an open and transparent manner to increase industry knowledge and capability, EMESRT developed several posters and is developing a Tyre and Rim baseline control effectiveness review guideline.

Required Operating States (ROS)

ROS-01: Tyre maintenance practices for load shifting, component storage and mobile equipment interactions are effectively managed.


Tyre maintenance load shifting, component storage and mobile equipment interactions are safe and productive:

  • Clearances between mobile equipment and pedestrians are maintained
  • Clearances between fixed equipment and personnel are maintained
  • Lifting and load shifting is well planned and carried out without losing control
  • Tyres and wheel assemblies are stored correctly so they cannot fall or roll 
  • Movements of tyres and other wheel assembly components are managed at all phases of their operating lifecycle from manufacture through to disposal
  • Tyre maintenance includes Earth Moving Equipment as defined in Australian Standard AS 4457 as well as other rubber tyre vehicles such as highway trucks, light vehicles, cranes, etc

ROS-02: Wheel assemblies remain intact and equipment performs to expectations during tyre changes and all other tyre and rim maintenance activities.


Wheel assemblies remain intact and there are no unintended equipment failures through the tyre and rim maintenance cycle:  

  • Removal from equipment 
  • Disassembly 
  • Reassembly  
  • Mounting to equipment  
  • Inflation to operating pressure  
  • In-service tyre inspections including reinflation

Personnel are always protected from high-energy and/or pressure related failures of wheel assemblies and associated equipment

ROS-03: Safe and productive operational use of earth moving equipment with inflated rubber tyres.


Operational personnel understand and make relevant contributions to ensure safe and productive tyre management through ensuring that:

  • Operating conditions minimise tyre damage
  • Equipment operating practices meet and/or extend tyre life
  • Tyre pre-start inspection requirements are clear and applied
  • Operating personnel know how to manage high-energy wheel assembly failure situations e.g. fires, HV wire contact and lightning strike 

ROS-04: ROS 04 - Tyre recycling and disposal practices for load shifting, storage, mobile equipment interactions and interaction with plant are effectively managed.


Tyre recycling and disposal practices for load shifting, storage, mobile equipment interactions and interaction with plant are effectively managed:

  • Clearances between mobile equipment and pedestrians are maintained
  • Clearances between fixed equipment and personnel are maintained e.g. through guards and interlocks
  • Lifting and load shifting is well planned and carried out without losing control
  • Tyres are stored and transported so they cannot fall or roll 

ROS-05: Tyre maintenance, repair, reconditioning, recycling and disposal practices do not compromise the health of the people undertaking the work.


Tyre maintenance, repair, recycling and disposal practices do not cause health issues for the people involved.